Foundations on large diameter bored piles in soft and medium dense non-cohesive soils will become more economic if the soil beneath the pile is densified and if the stiffness of the soil is measured in a real-time process. The process comprises several steps, among them a preliminary design, excavation to preliminary pile point elevation, dynamic treatment of the bottom of excavated borehole while acceleration/retardation and strains are recorded, and an iterative calculation of static deformability of the soil based on the dynamic deformability. The dynamic loading is transferred to the soil by means of a heavy ram dropped onto a steel body instrumented with accelerometers and strain gauges.
Road construction has long been motivated by political goals, such as effectiveness, security demands and decentralisation. Also the environmental impact due to road construction should be taken into consideration. A great number of environmental assessment methods exist. The best method must be comprehensive but simple enough to use and to understand that it comes to general and frequent use.
This paper describes a method developed 1997 in a master thesis  by Johansson at Uppsala University of Technology in Sweden. The purpose of the thesis was to study which improvement method is the best one from an environment perspective. The methods were measured by several parameters i.e., ecological and human toxicity, energy consumption and emissions, all calculated to the life length of the road.
The Geo Variation is the overall effect of the geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and geometric variation. In the geo planning work it is important to investigate, or estimate, and discuss the Geo Variation, as it is important for the assessment of the prognosis of displacements, relative displacement differences and distortion angles in buildings and water and sewer lines. The investigation of the Geo Variation makes it feasible to make the right decisions in planning the measures for the foundation of buildings and other structures.
A building of high complexity was constructed in the south of Sweden, comprising a 35 m high warehouse. In order to hose the maximum acceptable inclination difference for loaded flooring ground improvement and steel fibres reinforcement of the concrete slab in the high-rising warehouse was used. The soil in the area contained filling, sand, till and peat with a variety of properties. Advanced numerical analyses were made and the Observational Method (OM) was used for jet grouting and cement surface stabilisation. The jet-grouted columns had a minimum diameter of 0.8 m and a minimum mean compressive strength of 4 MPa. The cement-stabilised layers were installed with a minimum compressive strength of 2 MPa and with a total thickness of 1.0 m. The concrete slab was 0.2 m thick, reinforced with 35 kg steel fibres/m3. OM was applied by quality control of material properties in order to verify the conditions and construction work. Field and laboratory tests were performed in the controlling process. The test results were compared to FEM calculated deflection curves based on verified material properties. Threshold limits on material properties were identified and taken into account for work and monitoring plans as well as an action plan of corrective measures.
At the XII ECSMGE conference 1999 in Amsterdam a paper by Berggren was presented, “Ground Improvement – an overview”. The intention of the paper was to form part of discussion in the field of ground improvement and it dealt with categorization and classification of ground improvement. The results of a literature search were discussed with regard to general content and development trends. Essential safety tools such as quality assurance and risk assessment was discussed, as were environmental aspects. The intention now is to develop a continuation of this paper by doing and analyzing a new literature search between 1997 and 2015. More than 4200 literature references during this period have been classified in different categories. The result of the classification may lead the researcher to find his way in this vast area of technology.